The Southern Ocean and Antarctic region currently best represent one of the few places left on our planet with conditions similar to the preindustrial age. Currently, climate models have low ability to simulate conditions forming the aerosol baseline; a major uncertainty comes from the lack of understanding of aerosol size distributions and their dynamics. Contrasting studies stress that primary sea-salt aerosol can contribute significantly to the aerosol population, challenging the concept of climate biogenic regulation by new particle formation (NPF) from dimethyl sulphide marine emissions. We present a statistical cluster analysis of the physical characteristics of particle size distributions (PSD) collected at Halley (Antarctica) for the year 2015 (89 % data coverage). By applying the Hartigan-Wong k-Means method we find 8 clusters describing the entire aerosol population. Three clusters show pristine average low particle number concentrations (< 121–179 cm−3) with three main modes (30 nm, 75–95 nm, 135–160 nm) and represent 57 % of the annual PSD (up to 89–100 % during winter, 34–65 % during summer based upon monthly averages). Nucleation and Aitken mode PSD clusters dominate summer months (Sep–Jan, 59–90 %), whereas a clear bimodal distribution (43 and 134 nm, respectively, min Hoppel mode 75 nm) is seen only during the Dec–Apr period (6–21 %). Major findings of the current work include: (1) NPF and growth events originate from both the sea ice marginal zone and the Antarctic plateau, strongly suggesting multiple vertical origins, including marine boundary layer and free troposphere; (2) very low particle number concentrations are detected for a substantial part of the year (57 %), including summer (34–65 %), suggesting that the strong annual aerosol concentration cycle is driven by a short temporal interval of strong NPF events; (3) a unique pristine aerosol cluster is seen with a bimodal size distribution (75 nm and 160 nm, respectively), strongly correlating with wind speed and possibly associated with blowing snow and sea spray sea salt, dominating the winter aerosol population (34–54 %). A brief comparison with two other stations (Dome C Concordia and King Sejong Station) during the year 2015 (240 days overlap) shows that the dynamics of aerosol number concentrations and distributions are more complex than the simple sulphate-sea spray binary combination, and it is likely that an array of additional chemical components and processes drive the aerosol population. A conceptual illustration is proposed indicating the various atmospheric processes related to the Antarctic aerosols, with particular emphasis on the origin of new particle formation and growth.
COVID-19 and low oil prices force Tullow Oil to further reduce its 2020 capex. (Credit: Wonita Janzen from Pixabay) Tullow Oil has revised its 2020 capital expenditure (capex) to about $300m following the identification of additional cost savings in response to the challenging external factors.Last month, the UK-based oil and gas company announced its 2020 capex at $350m, which marks a 30% cut compared to the previous year. The company had also announced a budget of about $100m on decommissioning activities, which has now been brought down to $65m.The company, currently has interests in more than 70 exploration and production licences, that are spread across 15 countries in the African and South American continents.Tullow Oil claimed that it has identified savings mainly through the postponment of activities across its portfolio and by cost cutting that can be achieved by ongoing farm-down actions.In Ghana, the company is said to generate savings through the early termination of the Maersk Venturer rig and the postponement of certain well activity along with the removal of any non-critical operations which do not focus on safety and asset reliability.However, the UK oil and gas firm will continue to make investments in projects that will provide good returns with its board of directors agreeing to advance the next phase of the Simba development in Gabon which is expected to pay back by the end of next year at $30/bbl.Preparations made by Tullow Oil to handle coronavirus outbreakThe company said that its production activities in West Africa have not been impacted by COVID-19 as of now. Apart from implementing existing infectious disease mitigation plans, the company said that all its personnel in West Africa will self-isolate in Ghana for two weeks prior to their transfer to its floating production storage and offloading units (FPSOs) so that that the risk of a COVID-19 outbreak offshore is kept under a check.Additionally, the company has completed a redetermination of its reserves based lending (RBL) facility to confirm a debt capacity of $1.9bn and a headroom of about $700m.Tullow Oil chief financial officer Les Wood said: “Today’s positive news verifies the strength of our producing assets and robust hedging strategy which underpin the RBL and, combined with the further cost savings we have identified, confirms the strength of our liquidity in the medium-term.“Nevertheless, strengthening the balance sheet continues to be a key priority with the Group seeking to raise proceeds in excess of $1 billion through portfolio management.“Elsewhere in the business, Tullow is responding well to the challenges presented by the Coronavirus pandemic with strong controls and processes in place to allow the business to operate as close to normal as possible in spite of these difficult times.” Last month, Tullow Oil set its 2020 capex at $350m, which marked a 30% cut compared to the previous year
An Oxford student has lost her bid to appeal a suspended sentence for stabbing her boyfriend. The Court of Appeal ruled that Lavinia Woodward, 25, could not successfully challenge her 10 month sentence, which was suspended for eighteen months. Woodward pleaded guilty to a charge of unlawful wounding at Oxford Crown Court last year following the December 2016 attack, which took place in Christ Church. Woodward, a medical student, stabbed her then boyfriend in the lower leg with a breadknife, also injuring two fingers. Oxford Crown Court heard last year that she had become angry at his contacting her mother on Skype, after discovering that she had been drinking.Court of Appeal Judge Johannah Cutts rejected her appeal, stating that the Crown Court judge had taken exceptional steps by suspending her jail term. His sentence was “constructive and compassionate”, according to the judge.Oxford Crown Court judge Ian Pringle QC stated that a suspended sentence was an opportunity for Woodward to prove she no longer had an addiction to drugs and alcohol.Pringle noted at sentencing that Woodward was “an an extraordinarily able young lady”. He deferred the sentence as he also believed sending her to prison would damage her career hopes of becoming a surgeon.This move triggered a debate surrounding inequality in the criminal justice system.Woodward has voluntarily suspended her studies at the University of Oxford. Cherwell understands Woodward would face disciplinary procedures if she were to return.
A funeral service was held June 23 for Librado Gonzalez, 95, of Hoboken. He died peacefully on June 20 surrounded by his family at the Hoboken University Hospital. Librado was born in Cuba and came to the US in 1969. Before coming to the US, he served in the Cuban Marines Corps during WWII. Librado was well known in the Cuban Wrestling Circuit as the Black Falcon. He is the former owner of Elizabeth Bridal, 331 Washington St., Hoboken, as well as being retired from working two maintenance jobs at Stevens Institute and at St. Francis Hospital, Jersey City. Librado will be sorely missed by many especially his wife Elisa, and his son Hoboken Police Detective Alejandro N. Gonzalez and his wife Marie. Librado will also be missed by his three grandchildren, Johnathan, Nathaniel, and Kathleen Bracero as well as three great grandchildren Nathaniel Jr., Johnathan Jr. and Vincent Bracero as well as his niece and nephew Aimee and Abel Quintero.Services arranged by the Lawton-Turso Funeral Home, Hoboken.
With the Dave Matthews Band’s 25th anniversary tour in full swing, it’s no surprise that longtime fans are feeling a bit nostalgic. Matthews has been a musical force in the scene since 1991, mixing up his performances with the full band, his duo with Tim Reynolds, and, of course, solo shows. While the solo shows have become more rare in recent years, Matthews did find the time to make it out to California in support of presidential candidate Bernie Sanders just two nights ago.Watch Dave Matthews’ Four Song Solo Set From Bernie Sanders Voter RallyBack in the 90’s however, Matthews could be found strumming his acoustic more often. With that in mind, Matthews and his team have announced the release of Live At Sweet Briar College from April 14th, 1996, with all proceeds from the 2-CD set going to Sweet Briar College near Lynchburg, VA. In honor of the 20-year reunion for the class of 1996, Dave Matthews will release the full concert later this summer.In anticipation, you can listen to “Pay For What You Get,” below.
CHICAGO (AP) — Chicago Public Schools has ditched plans for thousands of teachers report to class this week ahead of students after the teachers union said its members wouldn’t comply and were prepared to picket over coronavirus safety concerns. The reversal in the nation’s third-largest district also means roughly 3,200 pre-K and special education students who started in-person classes earlier this month as part of a phased-in return go back to online learning. Mayor Lori Lightfoot says bargaining will continue and thousands of K-8 students are still expected next week.
Saint Mary’s alumna Vanessa Cooreman Smith combined her love of fashion with her drive to succeed when she launched Flourish Boutique in Granger in 2008, and she returned to the College on Monday to share the story of her business. The lecture was co-sponsored by Saint Mary’s Business and Economics Department and the Cross Currents Program’s Collegiate Speaker Series. Smith, who graduated in 2004, said the boutique was a dream of hers that began during her undergraduate years. “When at Saint Mary’s, I found myself trying to fit my passions and creative talents into other avenues that were more practical for living in the Midwest,” Smith said. During her junior year at Saint Mary’s, Smith said she discovered her passion to start her own business, and after college began to take classes in business and fashion through the Art Institute Online. “All the time I was doing that, I was planning, saving and researching,” she said. “Despite my fear of failure, I knew it was my calling in life was to start my own business. Smith combined a small business loan and her savings to open Florish Boutique in 2008 as a women’s clothing and accessories store, Smith said. The business’s mission is to help women “flourish” both in fashion and in life. “The definition of the flourish has two meanings: first, as an embellishment or flair on clothing with that as a testament to the clothes we have, and second, is to thrive or prosper,” Smith said. Smith said her goal is to help women find unique and special clothing, but also to make them feel confident and great about themselves. “Only two months after Flourish opened, the stock market crashed,” Smith said. “I knew it was too late to turn back. “Looking back, when faced with the recession at that time, I felt like all my life’s mentors were preparing me for something difficult. The personal stress and toll was insane, we sold our house and our cars because we were so determined to make it work.” We had to come up with many creative marketing strategies like fashion shows, trunk shows, giveaways, etc. to help us during this time.” Smith said the adversity in the beginning served as motivation for her future success. “Despite everyone’s advice to close, it was like whenever someone told me to close, I became even more determined” Smith said. Two turning points of the business was her “giving philosophy” to gain fans and the use of social media, Smith said. “The turning point felt like a huge shift in momentum, but it didn’t mean overnight or lack of stress,” Smith said. Today, despite the recession, Flourish have experienced year after year growth,,” Smith said. “We launched our e-commerce store in 2011, [were] featured on CNN and have gained a big fan following through Facebook and blog posts,” Smith said. “We also now have specialized staff, internship position, and are outgrowing our current space.” Smith said in the future, she would like her business to become a major player in the online world of boutiques. “If you start a business it will be challenging, but on the other side you can live your dream,” Smith said. “Life can throw things at you, but you must pursue a job you love to do.” Contact Angela Bukur at [email protected]
By Sharon DowdyUniversity of GeorgiaSix trail-blazing University of Georgia faculty members were honored Oct. 7 in Athens, Ga., during the annual D.W. Brooks Lecture and Faculty Awards for Excellence ceremony. Presented by the UGA College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, the award program honors Gold Kist Inc. founder D.W. Brooks. A CAES alumnus, Brooks advised seven U.S. presidents on agriculture and trade issues. Although he died in 1999, his promotion of agriculture lives on through the awards. The 2008 award winners are Kathy Baldwin in public service extension, Clifton Baile distinguished professor, Joseph McHugh in teaching, Michael Strand in research, Jonathan ‘Tim’ Williams in global programs and Jeanna Wilson in extension. Baldwin, the UGA Cooperative Extension agent in Bleckley County, received the public service award. Baldwin knew from the time she was a senior in high school that she wanted to someday be a county agent. For the past 24 years, she has encouraged her 4-H’ers to be the best they can be. Her 4-H membership currently is 750. Thirty-five of her members have become master 4-H’ers. Five have become county agents. One is currently employed on the state 4-H staff. A Georgia Research Alliance Eminent Scholar in Agricultural Biotechnology, Baile received the distinguished professor award. His career has spanned 35 years and includes experience at UGA, Harvard University, the University of Pennsylvania, SmithKline Beecham and Monsanto Company. He has helped create seven companies and currently serves on the board of directors of AgGlobalVision, Inc., Angionics, Inc., AptoTec, Inc., InsectiGen, Inc., MetaMorphix, Inc., Oncose, Inc. and rPeptide, LLC. He is a member of the Georgia BIO Board and the Louisiana Gene Therapy Research Consortium. He has directed drug research and development projects from the discovery stage to commercialization. He has served as a consultant to more than 20 companies, including several in the top Fortune 50. As chief executive officer and chairman of the board of AptoTec, Inc. and InsectiGen, Inc., he manages research, development and commercialization programs. A UGA professor of entomology, McHugh received the teaching award. He teaches courses like insect taxonomy and principles of systematics. He has been the main advisor for 12 graduate students, served on the advisory committees for 35 students and has advised or been thesis reader for several honors program students. He advises the H.O. Lund Entomology Club, too. Since arriving at UGA, McHugh has received the H. H. Ross Outstanding Teaching Award and is a three-time winner of the H. O. Lund Outstanding Faculty Award. In 2006, he won the Distinguished Teaching Award from the Southeastern Branch of the Entomological Society of America. In 2007, he was honored with the national ESA Distinguished Teaching Award. Strand received the research award. He studies parasite-host interactions, including the roles insects play in the transmission of several plant, animal and human diseases and parasites play in controlling insect pest populations. He joined the UGA faculty in 2001. In 2006, he earned the title of Distinguished Research Professor. Strand holds joint or affiliated appointments in the CAES, Center for Tropical and Emerging Global Diseases, the Faculty of Infectious Diseases and the Department of Genetics. Director of the federal Peanut Collaborative Research Support Program, Williams received the global programs award. He began his career in the National Research Program of Zimbabwe as a peanut physiologist. He later joined the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics where he studied peanut, cowpea and millet and the application of models in crop improvement systems. In 1995, he joined the UGA faculty and became the associate director of the Peanut CRSP. In 1997, he became its director. The Peanut CRSP connects American peanut scientists with counterparts in developing countries to solve problems for peanuts. He streamlines research management while expanding his interest in the aflatoxin and utilization aspects of the peanut industry. A UGA professor of poultry science, Wilson received the extension award. She has a national and international reputation in broiler breeder management. Her work on improving breeder fertility alone saves Georgia poultry breeders more than $6 million annually. Since joining UGA in 1988, Wilson has solved problems in hatchery and breeder management. She works to improve flock productivity, fertility and hatchability through field studies and applied research on feed restriction programs, hen nesting preferences, pattern of egg production, rooster mating activity, semen quality, embryo viability and egg contamination. Today’s breeder houses are designed based on her recommendations. (Sharon Dowdy is a news editor with the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.)
With a record-setting cold snap and snow-snarled highways in north Georgia, January 2014 went into the record books as one bone-chilling month. After record-setting cold at the beginning of the month, many Georgia cities saw average temperatures between 3 and 8 degrees below normal. A large ridge of high pressure over California and a deep trough of low pressure over the eastern U.S. allowed frigid Arctic air to reach the Deep South in January, with accompanying new low temperature records and snow in some areas. On Jan. 7, Atlanta, Athens, Columbus, Macon, Savannah and Augusta all broke their record low temperatures with values ranging from 6 F in Atlanta to 19 F in Savannah. The new records were 3 to 5 degrees lower than their previous record low temperatures for the date, most of which occurred in 1970. Athens, Columbus, Macon, Savannah, Alma and Brunswick also set record low maximum temperatures that day, warming up to only the upper 20s and low 30s after their cold morning starts. Additional records for cold weather were set in Macon and Brunswick. Many schools closed due to dangerously low wind chills to protect school children who would be waiting at bus stops. The record-setting temperatures also led to rolling power outages in Athens on Jan. 7 due to extremely high demand for electric heating. A second round of extreme low temperature records were set late in the month in Columbus, Macon, Augusta, Alma and Brunswick when daily maximum temperatures again only rose to the upper 20s to middle 30s during the day on Jan. 29. The extreme cold snaps helped drive down monthly average temperatures. In Atlanta, the monthly average temperature for January 2014 was 37.0 degrees F (6.3 degrees below normal), in Athens it was 37.0 degrees (6.5 degrees below normal), Columbus averaged 39.7 degrees (7.5 degrees below normal), Macon had 39.1 degrees (7.2 degrees below normal), Savannah was 46.4 degrees (3.1 degrees below normal), Brunswick had 47.6 degrees (3.9 degrees below normal), Alma averaged 45.3 degrees (5.4 degrees below normal) and Augusta was 39.5 degrees (5.9 degrees below normal). Atlanta, Macon and Columbus reported record high snowfall for the day on Jan. 28 with 2.6 inches in Atlanta, 2.1 inches in Macon and 1.2 inches in Columbus, surpassing the old daily records of a trace set in 2005 at all locations. Snowfall in Metro Atlanta was generally 2 to 3 inches while the Athens vicinity received 1 to 2 inches. The highest daily snowfall amount reported by volunteer Community Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow network observers was 3.2 inches in Peachtree City in Fayette County on Jan. 29. The highest monthly snowfall total was 3.8 inches west of Blue Ridge in Fannin County. Roads in the northeast mountains were closed on Jan. 21 due to snow and high winds at higher elevations. A teenage boy died after he and some friends fell through a frozen pond on Jan. 30 in Calhoun. The most widespread impact of January’s winter weather was the traffic gridlock in Atlanta on Jan. 28. School and government officials abruptly closed schools and businesses when the snow started falling later that morning. The icy conditions, combined with several million vehicles entering the road system in a short time period, quickly led to a complete traffic standstill. The Governor announced plans to convene two committees to identify why the existing system failed and to help guide future decisions on weather-related school and business closings. A National Weather Service report on the storm can be found http://www.srh.noaa.gov/ffc/?n=20140128winterstorm. January was colder than normal, but at least it wasn’t soggyThe highest monthly total precipitation for January from NWS reporting stations was 4.68 inches in Athens (.63 of an inch above normal). The lowest was in Alma at 1.61 inches (2.65 inches below normal). Atlanta received 3.35 inches (.85 of an inch below normal), Macon received 3.23 inches (1.01 below normal), Savannah received 2.41 inches (1.28 inches below normal), Augusta received 2.48 inches (1.43 inches below normal), Columbus received 2.91 inches (.94 of an inch below normal) and Brunswick received 4.59 inches (1.37 inches above normal).The highest single-day rainfall from a Community, Collaborative Rain, Hail and Snow Network observer was 3.18 inches near Comer in Madison County on Jan.11. An observer near Danielsville, also in Madison County, reported 3.05 inches on the same date. The highest monthly total rainfall was 7.69 inches, observed east of Darien in McIntosh County, followed by 6.06 inches measured near Thomson in McDuffie County.Severe weather was observed on Jan. 10 and 11, including a weak EF0 tornado that caused isolated damage near Waleska in Cherokee County on Jan. 11. The tornado formed in a line of strong thunderstorms that caused wind damage, downed trees and power lines and localized street flooding across northern Georgia.The “roller coaster” winter weather conditions are expected to continue for the rest of the season due to the absence of El Nino or La Nina conditions in the eastern Pacific Ocean. Neutral conditions are expected to continue through at least August. Gardeners should note that in neutral winters and springs the chance of a late frost, while still rare, is more likely than years with either El Nino or La Nina conditions present.
Sign up for our COVID-19 newsletter to stay up-to-date on the latest coronavirus news throughout New York A 27-year-old man was struck and killed while walking on the side of a road in his hometown of West Islip early Saturday morning.Suffolk County police said Christopher Campoverde was driving a Ford pickup truck eastbound in the right lane of Sunrise Highway when his truck struck Gregory Wilson at 5 a.m.The victim was pronounced dead at the scene. Campoverde, 28, of Selden, was not injured.Third Squad detectives impounded the truck for a safety check, are continuing the investigation and ask anyone with information on the crash to contact them at 631-854-8352.